NEWS RELEASE MAY 2016
Total Solutions is the Best Path for International Air Pollution Control Equipment Suppliers
The number of regulated air pollutants, stringency of regulations and technology are all changing rapidly. No one would have predicted that direct sorbent injection would be a success twenty years ago. In the preceding decade, lots of research money had been spent in the U.S. on the assumption that 60 percent SO2 removal would be sufficient. When the regulators ultimately opted for 90 percent efficiency, dry sorbent injection (DSI) was taken off the table. Now, with new hydrated lime technology and the willingness of power plants to spend lots of money for sorbent to avoid capital investments, the outlook for DSI is very promising.
Today, plant owners must consider technologies that remove particulate, acid gases, mercury, CO, CO2, NOX and organics. Some technologies create new air and water pollutants which must also be addressed.
Various industries have unique challenges. They also have many identical needs. Cement plants should pay attention to developments in the coal-fired power sector and vice versa. McIlvaine just hosted a webinar which concluded that ionic liquid impregnated pellets designed for natural gas mercury removal could have wide applicability in power, waste-to-energy and other industries.
McIlvaine publishes a number of specific market reports and databases on each technology and industry. It also publishes 5AB Air Pollution Managementto guide executives making strategic decisions for their companies. One of the recommendations is to be a “Solutions Provider” whether you are selling complete systems or just a component.
|Air Pollution Control Solutions|
Air Pollution Control
Let’s take an example. A typical valve controlling compressed air is a commodity product. One application involves pulsing air to clean filter bags. Pentair has become the world leader in this specialty niche by understanding the dust collection cleaning process and the variations needed for different industries. Pentair supplies not only the valves but the headers and the controls to optimize the cleaning process.
W.L. Gore has developed a number of innovative solutions based on process and industry knowledge. Most power plants have wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. There are new rules to reduce mercury. Wet FGD systems will remove most of this mercury with the right treatment chemicals. The conventional solution to remove the remainder of the mercury is to use activated carbon upstream. The problem is that any mercury removed by carbon reduces the amount captured in the scrubber. W.L. Gore developed a module that can be installed after the scrubber and efficiently remove remaining mercury.
This technology fits particularly well into the processes employed at sewage sludge incinerators and power plants. It is less attractive in some other industries. The reasons have to do with the sub processes, processes and the specific industries. The air pollution control solutions provider who understands all these aspects is in a position to offer the product with the lowest total cost of ownership (LTCO). This knowledge is the key to success in the international market. In fact, owners and operators in developing countries are in greater need of these insights than those in developed countries.
For more information on 5AB Air Pollution Management, click on: http://home.mcilvainecompany.com/index.php/markets/2-uncategorised/100-5ab
NEWS RELEASE MAY 2016
Flow Control and Treatment Component Solutions provide a $500 billion Market
The market for components used in flow control and treatment will be $395 billion in 2017. However, component suppliers have the opportunity to increase sales by 20 percent and gross margins by 40 percent by providing solutions which give the customer the lowest total cost of ownership (LTCO). This the latest prediction in N064 Air/Gas/Water/Fluid Treatment and Control: World Market.
2017 World Revenues
|Flow Control Liquids||Pumps, Valves||160|
|Flow Control Air/Gases||Compressors, Fans, Dampers||45|
|Filtration and Separation of Liquids||Filters, Centrifuges, Clarifiers, Cross-flow Membranes||50|
|Oxidation and Destruction Treatment for Liquids||Biological and Chemical Treatment including Digesters, Aerators, Treatment Chemicals, etc.||60|
|Indoor Air and Stack Gas Treatment||Filters, Scrubbers, Catalytic Reactors, Nozzles||80|
Component sales in 2017 will be just under $400 billion. However, if component suppliers were to pursue the solutions approach, the potential expands to well over $500 billion. This is easier said than done. The component supplier needs to understand the customer needs. In turn, this means understanding the sub process, the process and the industry.
|The Role of Components in Solutions|
The LTCO Valve
If the supplier thoroughly understands the customer needs, he can tailor his product to best fit those needs.
Let’s take an example. A typical valve controlling compressed air is a commodity product. One application involves pulsing air to clean filter bags. Pentair has become the world leader in this specialty niche by understanding the dust collection cleaning process and the variations needed for various different industries. Pentair supplies not only the valves but the headers and the controls to optimize the cleaning process.
Many industries need evaporation processes. Mechanical Vapor Recompression (MVR) is one sub process which minimizes total energy consumption. Colfax Howden has a number of blowers and fans to offer depending on the flow and temperature increase needed. However, it has also developed the ExVel® fan specifically for this unique application. The impellers are suited to abrasive and corrosive conditions encountered as the steam is recompressed.
W.L. Gore has developed a number of innovative solutions based on process and industry knowledge. Most power plants have wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. There are new rules to reduce mercury. Wet FGD systems will remove most of this mercury with the right treatment chemicals. The conventional solution to remove the remainder of the mercury is to use activated carbon upstream. The problem is that any mercury removed by the carbon reduces the amount captured in the scrubber. W.L. Gore developed a module which can be installed after the scrubber and efficiently remove remaining mercury.
Flowserve is a major supplier of pumps for reverse osmosis (RO) processes. Desalination of seawater is a big potential market. High energy cost is one of the major factors reducing the market potential. Flowserve understood that a solution was energy recovery and acquired a company to provide it. (Calder DWEER™)
Most flow control and treatment equipment will be purchased in countries with less application experience than in the past. This means that international suppliers have a great opportunity to develop and sell solutions to ensure that the customer selects the lowest total cost of ownership (LTCO). For more information, click on: N064 Air/Gas/Water/Fluid Treatment and Control: World Market
NEWS RELEASE MAY 2016
Severe Service Valve Sales to the Chemical Industry will be just under $4 Billion in 2017
Severe service valves are required for 56 percent of all the valve applications in the chemical industry. The definition of severe service includes valves which are subject to abrasion, corrosion, unusual pressures, or must be designed to meet stringent safety, sanitation, or contamination requirements.
Severe service valves are required for 75 percent of the process applications. Since the process segment accounts for 63 percent of all the valves sold to the chemical industry, the process severe service valves account for 42 percent of all the valves sold to the industry.
Water used for cooling requires virtually no use of severe service valves. Only 30 percent of the water intake valves are in the severe service category. About half the wastewater valves are designed for severe service. These are valves handling the slurry.
In 2017, the sales of severe service valves for processes will be just under $3 billion with the balance of $1 billion in the other three categories.
The percentages are based on revenues rather than amount of flow or the number of valve units. While severe service valves will account for 56 percent of the revenue, they will account for less than 30 percent of the flow and 20 percent of the unit sales.
Details on these forecasts are included in N028 Industrial Valves: World Market
Decision Guides on severe service valve options are already available for coal-fired power, gas turbine combined cycle power plants, nuclear plants and molecular sieve switching in gas treatment.
NEWS RELEASE MAY 2016
High Performance Pump Market for NAFTA Chemical Industry Tops $440 Million
Chemical manufacturing companies in the U.S., Canada and Mexico will spend over $440 million for high performance pumps in 2017. This is the latest forecast in the McIlvaine publication Pumps World Market.
What are high performance pumps? McIlvaine is using its own definition which includes both severe and critical service. Severe service is defined as an application where corrosion, erosion, pressure, or temperature is a concern. It also includes flow variables such as pumps which must run dry on occasion or are subject to rapid starts and stops.
Critical service entails impact on the product or the process. Product purity is critical for many chemical products. Contamination from pump components needs to be eliminated. In certain cases, damage to the product is a concern. The percentage of solids to be transported can be very high and create challenges for pump suppliers. The pump efficiency over the flow range is another factor which can be important.
There are no high performance pumps used in cooling where once-through water or cooling towers are utilized. Water intakes do not require high performance pumps (ultrapure water treatment is included in process separation). The biggest market is in process applications. End users and process OEMs in NAFTA will spend $330 million for pumps actually moving process fluids. Processes can be further categorized as follows:
|Process||High Performance Pump Needs|
The major uses of high performance pumps with process fluids are in separation and reaction. There are many chemical processes. Each has its unique requirements. Suppliers of high performance pumps who understand the chemical processes can achieve high profit margins in this industry segment.
For more information on N019 Pumps World Market click on: http://home.mcilvainecompany.com/index.php/markets/2-uncategorised/116-n019
NEWS RELEASE MAY 2016
Complex Unintended Consequences Obscure the Path Forward for Air Pollution Control
A small Ohio town no longer exists thanks to the unintended consequences of air pollution control. A nearby power plant spent hundreds of millions of dollars to reduce NOx. The catalyst not only reduced the NOx it converted SO2 to sulfuric acid. Within a few days, the acid deposition did such great damage to the buildings in the town that the utility agreed to buy the complete town and pay for relocations. In the ensuing decade, catalyst suppliers have redesigned their product to eliminate this problem.
New mercury regulations have such low emission limits that the instrument just to measure gaseous mercury can cost hundreds of thousands of dollars. Prior to issuing the regulation, EPA tested a number of stacks and found that all the mercury existed in gaseous form. Therefore, the regulations only required measurement of gaseous mercury. In response to the regulation requirements, power plants, cement plants and waste-to-energy plants embraced a two-step solution.
Step one was to convert the gaseous mercury to particulate mercury. Step two was to remove the particulate mercury. The end result is that if step one is very efficient and step two is not, there is lots of particulate mercury being emitted. Another unintended consequence is that particulate mercury will not travel far, whereas gaseous mercury can transverse the globe. Even though this problem has been evident for a few years, there is still no proposed change in the regulations.
The recent regulation of many pollutants combined with new technology which makes it possible to remove all the pollutants in one device has greatly increased the use of fabric filters. However, there has not been a recognition of what McIlvaine describes as “The importance of FIFO vs. LIFO in Dust Cake creation.”
Direct sorbent injection (DSI) and embedded catalyst dictate a new approach to bag cleaning. In addition to discrete particle capture, bag filters are being tasked with:
- Mercury removal
- Acid gas absorption
- Dioxin destruction or capture
- NOx reduction
The importance of the method of bag cleaning can be illustrated by use of the accounting approach to inventory. Two options are first in first out (FIFO) and last in first out (LIFO). If the price paid stays the same, the choice between the two accounting methods makes no difference. But, if the cost of recent inventory is greatly different than the past, then the accounting method makes a big impact on profits.
The capture of discrete particles is the equivalent of price parity. Let’s say that when you pulse a bag you are always discharging the latest particles to arrive and the remaining cake consists of the earliest. Since the ability of a matrix of dust particles to act as a filtration medium does not change, it does not matter which particles remain. In fact, maintaining a somewhat permanent layer of cake protects the fabric from wear. Also a more permanent cake provides higher dust capture. It has been shown that on-line cleaning results in some re-deposit of dust particles. But this is does not impact discrete particle capture efficiency.
The new paradigm with DSI is a big price difference. The newly arrived lime particle has the capability to absorb acid gases. The lime particle deposited earlier is already converted to calcium sulfate and provides no additional absorption capability. The semi-permanent cake layer is very undesirable for acid gas capture. Mercury re-emission is also a risk for an activated carbon cake which is semi-permanent. So it is very important to adopt FIFO and not LIFO.
This leads to the obvious question as to which are the best cleaning methods to achieve LIFO? The long running debate about surface filtration vs. depth filtration needs to be reviewed in light of FIFO. Also, the pulsing method itself needs to be reviewed. Do some methods result in more re-entrainment of particles in the previous cake than do others? Should more of the cake be removed with each pulsing?
It could be argued that the reaction takes place in the ductwork and not on the bag. But the big difference in performance of bag filters vs. precipitators with DSI proves that the cake absorption is substantial.
There may be lots of research on this subject but if so, McIlvaine would appreciate feedback on it. If there is not, it is an area deserving lots of attention.
Bag cleaning is also made more challenging by the increasing use of ceramic filter elements. The advantage of these elements is the ability to remove dust at 850°F. The older generation rigid ceramic has been replaced by ceramic fiber media which can be pulsed. However, this media cannot necessarily be pulsed with the identical system used for synthetic bags. An alumina refinery in Australia was having cleaning problems with a ceramic filter. Pentair Goyen analyzed the situation and provided a more robust pulsing system. This solved the problem.
Ceramic, glass and even synthetic media are incorporating catalyst in the media to reduce NOx or oxidize dioxins. Do these designs require a different cleaning approach? The catalyst in the Clear Edge design is not on the surface. So, the dust cake will not affect performance except if it causes maldistribution of the gas. If more gas flows through one area than another, the reactivity of the system is reduced.
A broader subject is the whole approach to cleaning. High pressure/low volume is the most popular option. Does capture of these other pollutants open the door for high volume /medium pressure or even for reverse air cleaning?
The potential for the one-stop shopping is great. Costs of pollution control can be reduced for new installations. The small footprint makes a big difference in the cost of upgrading existing plants to meet new air pollution rules. It is, therefore, important to understand and then maximize FIFO potential. McIlvaine will be interviewing experts in the various niches to shed more light on this. The results will be published in:
44I Power Plant Air Quality Decisions (Power Plant Decisions Orchard)